The choice of Medium of Instruction (MOI) is a key determinant of student learning levels. The MOI regulates the mode of communication between teachers and students, shapes students’ understanding in the classroom, and assumes an equity dimension if certain languages are accorded a more privileged status in society than others. Since Pakistan’s inception, the choice of MOI has always been a point of contention as some stakeholders advocate for English as it is perceived to be the gateway to global progress, while others stress that Urdu and regional languages are an integral part of Pakistan’s cultural identity and should be treated as such in the classroom. Constantly shifting government policies over the past few decades are a symptom of this tension. SAHE has conducted considerable research and continues to raise awareness on issues of language and learning in Pakistan.

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