This study explored demand and supply-side factors contributing to the low transition of girls from primary to secondary education in 18 tehsils of 14 selected districts/territories where UNESCO has a presence. The districts comprised Ziarat, Jaffarabad in Balochistan; Tharparkar in Sindh; Kohistan, Swat and Mohmand in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur in Punjab; Muzaffarabad and Hattian in Azad Jammu and Kashmir; Astore and Ganchae in Gilgit Baltistan (GB); and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). Both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used to collect data from various respondents including parents, school-going and school-leaving girls, and teachers. The study found multiple factors relevant to girls’ access to lower secondary education in the target districts.
Among these are physical access to school, transport, uniform, stationery and nutrition as well as other factors such as parental education, socio-cultural factors, and safety and security in the school context. Equally, among supply side factors, the chapter explores the availability of schools, school quality, availability of teachers, teaching and learning materials, infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation facilities for girls in schools. The study specifically looks at COVID-19 and its impact on girl’s lower secondary schooling.